The Tokamak Fusion Reactor

What is nuclear fusion and why is it a promising energy source? How can we use magnetic fields to support fusion for long time periods? What are the key design features of a tokamak?

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The Tokamak Fusion Reactor

Following the advancements achieved recently by the JET laboratory in Oxfordshire, humanity stands one step closer to commercialising nuclear fusion power. JET employs the magnetic confinement technique to support fusion, achieved by a device called a tokamak. The principles of tokamak reactors are outlined in this article. Why Fusion is Hard Nuclear fusion involves the…

Fusion Triple Product: Nuclear-Powered Rockets

If we are to achieve our dreams of interstellar exploration beyond our Solar System, we need to explore propulsion mechanisms that allow us to travel faster and further than current rockets. Chemical rockets used today have a low fuel-efficiency of just 35% and would take 30,000 years to reach the nearest stars outside our Solar…

The Mystery of Neutrino Mass

The standard model of particle physics is, perhaps ironically, written in the language of quantum field theory. Particles manifest as a consequence of the oscillatory motion of the associated fields. All known fermions, particles with half-integral spin such as the electron and the quarks, are massive particles. Fermion mass is a direct consequence of the…

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